PROCESS PLANT Process plants are usually industrial sites were raw material or natural products are used by a transformation processes to make them into useful and desirable goods. The end product can in these industrial processes go through a number of phase changes or travel through sets of conveyors to become what is desired it should be. In most process plants there is usually a lot of consumption of energy in any form or the other. Process plants are ever growing in terms of finding innovative ways to improve their end product.  Today a lot of these industries use PLC’s to do or perform most of the work which was previously done by relays and timers.
REFRIGERATION PLANT Refrigeration works by changing the absorbed heat is state of the refrigerant.The majority of heat is removed from the temperature controlled space as therefrigerant absorbs heat when it changes state from a liquid to a gas in the evaporator.The majority of the absorbed heat is removed from the refrigeration system i…

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

Executive Summary 
The aim of the project was to upgrade the SCADA on site by adding distinct features to the current one using Carel specialised software, PlantVisorPro2 for refrigeration plant control, monitoring and maintenance purposes. The process will include a list of Carel’s instruments used in industry for communication of data from all the components within the plant over distances to ensure that it is recieved without distorting the information.
1.3.1 Sub-Problem
Collect and do an analysis of the information previously reported on in 2015 as with regards to Carel’s PlantVisorPro in connection with monitoring, control and maintenance of the plant. This must include a thorough investigation on way to make the Carel more accessible and to improve on the current features. Furthermore the investigation should look at how the PlantVisor can be used to show the instrumentation used in the refrigeration plant and add some animation of these instruments. …

Current transformers, relays, grading power system, busbar, short circuit fault, load, directional relay overcurrent protection.

Abstract Electrical power systems are designed to be as faulty free as possible through careful system design and equipment design, proper equipment installation and periodic equipment maintenance. To achieve a free fault system protection systems or equipment’s should be installed according to the designed electrical power system i.e. grading of relays, transformers and any other protection system. However, this document covers the different methods of protecting a power system as shown in figure 1, using time current relays, current transformers and this document also covers the calculations of faults on each busbar. This is achieved by employing Dig Silent as the simulation software.
Keywords: current transformers, relays, grading power system, busbar, short circuit fault, load, directional relay overcurrent protection.
1. Introduction & BackgroundThe short-circuit current available in a distribution system is usually supplied from many sources, which can be grouped into three ma…

Phases of a strugling student at the university

Introduction: Fisher’s transition curve
I chose this model due to the fact that it describes the path I have walked in the past three years. This model gives a flash-back of how I achieved my matric and it differentiates between the life I was living and the life I am currently living. Previously I did not have that bigger picture toward my career. Currently I am self-motivated therefore I am looking forward towards achieving my goals. In three years’ time I want to obtain my national diploma in Electrical Engineering.
Happiness is feeling of showing pleasure or satisfaction. In 2010 I was excited for the fact that I was doing my matric. I thought it was the end of the marathon only to found out it was the beginning. The fact that I was doing my final year it pleased me in such a way that I lost focus on my studies. I developed the mentality about work, due to that fact I did not perform well on my matric in failed English.
Depression is the stage of feeling very sad …

State space, Transfer function, state response adjoint, inverse output, input.

To analyse the dynamics of a physical process, it is necessary to obtain its mathematical description or representation. There are many ways by which this mathematical representation or model can be obtained. For physical systems, we usually apply the laws of physics to develop the required model. For instance, we can use the Kirchhoff’s laws to derive the models for electrical systems and Newtons laws to obtain the models for mechanical systems. However, this paper presents a matrix method for converting the state space to transfer function of a system using theoretical methods such as KVL, KCL to obtain the state representation then apply the MATLAB to simulate.
  Keywords: State space, Transfer function, state response adjoint, inverse output, input.
A control system consists of subsystems and processes (or plants) assembled for obtaining a desired output with desired performance, given a specified input. For example, consider an elevator, when the 4th floor b…